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In the midth century, the coins were made of 3 parts copper and 2 parts lead. Cast gold coins are also known to exist but are extremely rare.

During the Zhou dynasty period, the method for casting coins consisted of first carving the individual characters of a coin together with its general outline into a mould made of either soapstone or clay.

As this was done without using a prior model, early Chinese coinage tends to look very diverse, even from the same series of coins as these all were cast from different and unrelated moulds bearing the same inscriptions.

During the Han dynasty , in order to gain consistency in the circulating coinage, master bronze moulds were manufactured to be used as the basis for other cash moulds.

These were engraved in generally easily manipulated metals such as tin. Coins were cast in sand moulds. Fine wet sand was placed in rectangles made from pear wood , and small amounts of coal and charcoal dust were added to refine the process, acting as a flux.

The mother coins were placed on the sand, and another pear wood frame would be placed upon the mother coin.

The molten metal was poured in through a separate entrance formed by placing a rod in the mould. This process would be repeated 15 times and then molten metal would be poured in.

The coins would be taken off the tree and placed on long square rods to have their edges rounded off, often for hundreds of coins simultaneously.

After this process, the coins were strung together and brought into circulation. Eventually this resulted in greater uniformity among cast Chinese coinage from that period onwards.

A single ancestor coin would be used to produce tens of thousands of mother coins; each of these in turn was used to manufacture tens of thousands of cash coins.

During the late Qing dynasty under the reign of the Guangxu Emperor in the mid 19th century the first machine-struck cash coins were produced, from a machine operated mint in Guangzhou , Guangdong province opened where the majority of the machine-struck cash would be produced.

Machine-made cash coins tend to be made from brass rather than from more pure copper as cast coins often were, and later the copper content of the alloy decreased while cheaper metals like lead and tin were used in larger quantities giving the coins a yellowish tint.

Another effect of the contemporary copper shortages was that the Qing government started importing Korean 5 fun coins and overstruck them with "10 cash".

Chinese cash coins originated from the barter of farming tools and agricultural surpluses. These tokens came to be used as media of exchange themselves and were known as spade money and knife money.

As standard circular coins were developed following the unification of China by Qin Shi Huang , the most common formation was the round-shaped copper coin with a square or circular hole in the center, the prototypical cash.

The early Ban Liang [16] cash coins were said to have been made in the shape of wheels like how other Ancient Chinese forms of coinage were based on agricultural tools.

The hole enabled the coins to be strung together to create higher denominations, as was frequently done due to the coin's low value. A string of cash was supposed to be equal in value to one tael of pure silver.

Local custom allowed the person who put the string together to take a cash or a few from each hundred for his effort one, two, three or even four in some places.

Thus an ounce of silver could exchange for in one city and in the next. In some places in the North of China short of currency the custom counted one cash as two and fewer than cash would be exchanged for an ounce of silver.

A string of cash weighed over ten pounds and was generally carried over the shoulder. Paper money equivalents known as flying cash sometimes showed pictures of the appropriate number of cash coins strung together.

Minting was definitively ended in with the establishment of the Tang dynasty. Wu Zhu cash coins were cast from BC to AD having a span of years, which is the longest for any coin in the history of the world.

The Koreans , [27] Japanese , [28] Ryukyuans , [29] and Vietnamese [30] [31] all cast their own copper cash in the latter part of the second millennium similar to those used by China.

Chinese cash coins were usually made from copper-alloys throughout most of Chinese history, before they were typically made from bronze and from onwards they were mostly made from brass.

Chinese historian Peng Xinwei stated that in the year traditional cast copper-alloy cash coins only made up The last Chinese cash coins were struck, not cast, during the reigns of the Qing Guangxu and Xuantong Emperors shortly before the fall of the Empire in , though even after the fall of the Qing dynasty production briefly continued under the Republic of China.

Vietnamese cash continued to be cast up until the early s. The last Chinese cash coins in Indonesia circulated in Bali until and are still used for most Hindu rituals today.

These coins are: [44] [45]. The earliest standard denominations of cash coins were theoretically based on the weight of the coin and were as follows:.

Coins of the Qing Dynasty — generally carried the era name of the emperor and tongbao on the obverse and the mint location where the coins were cast in Manchu and Chinese on the reverse.

In Imperial China cash coins were used for fortune-telling , this would be done by first lighting incense to the effigy of a Chinese deity , and then placing 3 cash coins into a tortoise shell.

The process involved the fortune teller counting how many coins lay on their obverse or reverse sides, and how these coins scratched the shell, this process was repeated 3 times.

Contemporary Chinese intelligentsia found the usage of cash coins for fortune-telling to be superior than any other methods. Though in general any cash coin could be used in traditional Chinese medicine but the Kai Yuan Tong Bao was most preferred, and preferences were given for some specific coins for certain ailments E.

One contemporary Russian account from a battle with the Tlingits in states "bullets were useless against the Tlingit armour", however this would've more likely be attributed to the inaccuracy of contemporary Russian smoothbore muskets than the body armour and the Chinese cash coins sewn into the Tlingit armour.

Other than for military purposes the Tlingit used Chinese cash coins on ceremonial robes. Because the strings were often accepted without being checked for damaged coins and coins of inferior quality and copper-alloys these strings would eventually be accepted based on their nominal value rather than their weight, this system is comparable to that of a fiat currency.

Although Chinese cash coins kept their round shape with a square hole from the Warring States period until the early years of the Republic of China, under the various regimes that ruled during the long history of China the square hole in the middle experienced only minor modifications such as being slightly bigger, smaller, more elongated, shaped incorrectly, or sometimes being filled with a bit of excess metal left over from the casting process.

If the shape of these holes were only hexagonal then they were referred to as "turtle shell holes", in some occidental sources they may be called "star holes" because they resemble stars.

Under Wang Mang 's Xin dynasty other than cash coins with "flower holes" also spade money with "flower holes" were cast.

The practice of creating cash coins with "flower holes" and "turtle shell holes" was also adopted by Japan, Korea, and Vietnam, however cash coins with these features are extremely rare in these countries despite using the same production techniques which further indicates that their addition was wholly intentional.

Red cash coins are also generally marked by their rather crude craftsmanship when compared to the cash coins of China proper. The edges of these coins are often not filed completely and the casting technique is often inaccurate or the inscriptions on them seemed deformed.

At the introduction of red cash system in Southern Xinjiang in , the exchange rate of standard cash or "yellow cash" and "red cash" was set at 10 standard cash coins were worth 1 "red cash coin".

During two or three subsequent years this exchange rate was decreased to When used in the Northern or Eastern circuits of Xinjiang, the "red cash coins" were considered equal in value as the standard cash coins that circulated there.

During most of their history the cast cash coins of China were predominantly made from bronze or other copper-alloys such as brass.

In some cases the usage of certain types of materials to produce cash coins are only more recently discovered due to the lack of historical records mentioning them.

Zhongguo Qianbi No. Lead cash coins have only been produced at a few times in the monetary history of china, mainly during the Five dynasties and Ten kingdoms period.

This table includes is what is generally known to have been the case today, but as future archaeological research might probably reveal that other periods of Chinese history might used alternative materials to produce cash coins, at least in locally in some areas.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Chinese cash disambiguation. Replicas of various ancient to 19th century cast cash coins in various metals found in China, Korea and Japan.

See also: Cash currency. See also: Mother coin. Main article: List of Chinese cash coins by inscription. See also: Chinese numismatic charm and Cash coins in art.

Main article: String of cash coins currency unit. Main article: Hongqian. China portal Money portal Numismatics portal.

Springer Link. Retrieved Harvard University archive. Admin for Chinesecoins. Retrieved 6 July National Institute of Korean History.

Retrieved 29 September Retrieved: 29 June Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 1 July Series Chinese Provinces that issued machine struck coins, from s to s.

Last updated: 10 June Retrieved 9 April Chinese Currency. Revised and edited by Virgil Hancock. Retrieved: 14 June By Ulrich Theobald Chinaknowledge.

Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 22 August Retrieved: 01 September Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 2 September Marilyn Shea University of Maine at Farmington.

March Retrieved 9 June Retrieved: 06 June Retrieved 23 July Early Japanese Coins. New Generation Publishing.

Archived from the original on 4 August Allan Barker. Plötzlich sackt er leblos unter der Prostituierten Zora zusammen. Diese gerät in Panik und drückt auf den Alarmknopf.

Sofort …. Wenn es scheinbar keinen Trost gibt Die beiden Autorinnen wissen wie es ist, ein Kind zu verlieren.

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Chinese Currency. Revised and edited by Virgil Hancock. Retrieved: 14 June By Ulrich Theobald Chinaknowledge. Retrieved 13 February Retrieved 22 August Retrieved: 01 September Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 2 September Marilyn Shea University of Maine at Farmington.

March Retrieved 9 June Retrieved: 06 June Retrieved 23 July Early Japanese Coins. New Generation Publishing.

Archived from the original on 4 August Allan Barker. Political economy and political process in s China.

Harvard University Press , Cambridge , Massachusetts. A reference list of years of Chinese coinage. Howard A. Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 9 March Retrieved 8 March News Singapore.

Retrieved: 13 July Cast Chinese Coins. Trafford , United Kingdom : Trafford Publishing. Durst, New York First published Harvard University Press.

Cambridge Retrieved: 02 July Traditional Methods of Fortune-Telling". Retrieved 20 July Lauren Mack ThoughtCo. Archived from the original on Retrieved 22 July Retrieved: 22 July Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 8 April Australian Museum Collection Last update: 27 October Access date: 03 October Bronnen vermeld door de website sources named by the reference : Tropenmuseum; KB.

Access date: 10 August Retrieved 3 June Chinese coins on Tlingit armour". Archived from the original on 11 June CBC News.

Published: January Retrieved: 05 February Smith, D. New York, Chicago, Toronto. Uitgever: Fleming H. Retrieved 3 October Numismatics New York, U.

Accessed: 3 October Retrieved: 5 February Retrieved 28 June Retrieved: 01 July Limited M. Management Group Ltd.

Retrieved: 28 August Ancient Chinese Coins Chinesecoins. Retrieved 22 April Retrieved 14 February Sina Corp. Retrieved 14 September China Institute Gallery.

Retrieved 19 February Minzu University of China. Retrieved 17 September Retrieved: 17 September Retrieved 24 February Sidorovich 10 December Temple Coins of the Yuan Dynasty.

Retrieved 27 August Retrieved 21 February The Los Angeles Times. Brill, Leiden, pp — Retrieved 21 September Sohu , Inc. Published: August 12th, Retrieved 15 September Retrieved 16 September Berkeley : University of California Press.

Harvard University Press , Cambridge , Massachusetts , pp —, pp. Stanford University Press , Stanford. Page Leung Chinese Coinage Web Site Charm.

Retrieved 20 August Mother coin Ancestor coin. Hong Kong dollar Macanese pataca. See also: Economy of China Economy of Taiwan.

Chinese cash coins by inscription. List of Chinese cash coins by inscription. See also: History of Chinese currency.

Historical currencies of Taiwan. Fifth series of the new Taiwan dollar banknote Economy of Taiwan. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Harv and Sfn no-target errors CS1 Chinese-language sources zh Articles containing Chinese-language text Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from October Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from October Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the Library of Congress Country Studies Articles containing Japanese-language text.

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Gemeinsam schrieben sie das Buch, das sie sich selbst gewünscht hätten, als sie um ihr Kind trauerten. Die lange, bewegte Geschichte spiegelt sich ebenso in den Tempeln und Palästen der benachbarten Königsstädte Patan und Bhaktapur.

Die Zombies kommen! In diesem schockierenden Film jedoch nicht nur in grausamer Gestalt, sondern auch mit Musik. Noch dazu ist er in ein wohlhabendes Mädchen aus gutem Hause ver….

Anmelden Konto anlegen. Ohne aktives Javascript kann es zu Problemen bei der Darstellung kommen. Bitte aktivieren Sie deshalb Ihr Javascript. Artikel merken In den Warenkorb Artikel ist im Warenkorb.

Sexy Alm 2. Artikel am Lager. Sexy Alm. The Cash Box Kings. Annette Kast-Zahn. Robert Hilburn. Rebecca Nash. King Dude.

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